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Ukrainian National Economy/Agrarian-Industrial Complex Brief Characteristic

1991-2004 period in Ukraine was distinguished with social-economic fundamental changes as well as basically new type economy establishing. In fact, from zero level were formed Ukrainian economy main attributes: financial, monetary, banking, customs as well as other systems, which in whole determine independent State economic infrastructure. Within 1991-1999 Ukraine was going through protracted economic crisis accompanied with GDP, industrial/agricultural output and salaries substantial lowering.

However, within recent 5 years substantial changes have taken place in Ukraine . Governmental policy executed within this period has resulted in high economic growth, national currency stability and population life-support system positive changes. Within 2000/03 GDP has grown up ≈ 30%, to UAH263.2 milliard (as to preliminary data, in 2004 GDP will grow up not less 12% against 2003), industry output has grown up 60.3%, agricultural output - 10%, retail trade turnover - 71.4%. Investment process significant activation is noticed. Basic capital investments growth has reached 92.2%. Within this period salaries have boosted 61%. These indexes growth is one of the highest not only among transitional economy countries, yet as well among European countries. On other hand, however, these social-economic indexes still remain extremely low if regarded in nominal value per citizen. However, experts forecast further very quick Ukrainian economic growth: as to them, within ten years Ukrainian GDP can boost 2.5 times.

Agriculture will continue strongly influencing country economic development; Ukrainian agricultural potential is really huge. Ukraine has significant possibilities for its agrarian sector development, for turning it into highly effective, export competitive economy sector, able to assure State food security. Ukraine has about one-third black soils as well as 27% total European arables (0.68 ha per person in Ukraine , ≈ 0.25 ha per person in Europe ).

Last years appeared to be period of forming new agricultural economic relations, based on land/assets private property principles as well as creation of conditions for economic activity further growth, resulting in substantial structural agricultural sphere changes with significant growth of individual agricultural economies importance in country total agricultural production: thus, population owned/cultivated agricultural lands area has grown 1.5 times against 2000, reaching 12.8 million ha in early 2004 (up 17% against 2003 similar). As of Jan 1, 2004 agricultural lands allocated for individual subsidiary economies, collective/individual gardening as well as vegetable growing, haymaking and pasturing, totaled 6.6 million ha (15.7% total agricultural lands), up 5.5% against 2000. Presently in Ukraine there are about 60.000 agricultural economies (with land area totaling 23.6 million ha), including 16.900 economic unions as well as private, State-owned and other ownership forms companies/cooperatives with 10% of their land plots up to 100 ha, 18% - from 100 ha to 500 ha, 21% - from 1000 ha to 200 ha, 11% - from 2000 ha to 3000 ha, 11% - over 3000 ha. Agricultural economies average land plots are over 1200 ha.

In early 2004 in Ukraine were over 43.000 farm economies, with land area totaling 3.1 million ha (2.9 million ha arables). Farm economies average land areas have grown 6 ha, to 72 ha against 2003 similar. In agricultural activity were engaged in total 3.9 million persons (down 3.9 % against 2002), with 1.6 million persons (42.7% total) being engaged in individual auxiliary economies. Within 2003 in agricultural sector (incl. hunting/forestry economies) 12.2% gross surplus value of all economic spheres was created; as to 2004 forecasts, this index is to reach about 11%. As to State Statistics Committee preliminary estimation, 2004 agricultural output will total UAH83.5 milliard (in real prices), up against UAH64.5 milliard in 2003.

Plant Growing

Plant growing branch total output decline has slowed down within last years (except 2003, when grains output substantially shortened due to unfavorable weather conditions). Branch 2004 total output has significantly grown against 2003: thus, grain output has boosted over twice. Sugar beet, potato and vegetables crops have also significantly grown. Yet, sunseeeds, berries, fruits, grapes crops have substantially lowered (see Table 1).

Table 1 . Main Ukrainian agricultural crops output data in 2000/04 dynamics

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004*

Gross crop , thousand tons

Grains

24459

39706

38792

20234

41718

incl. wheat

10197

21348

20549

3599

17517

Sugar beet

13199

15575

14376

13392

16502

Sunseeds

3457

2251

3270

4254

3052

Potato

19838

17344

16619

18428

20754

Vegetables

5821

5907

5825

6546

6935

Fruits and berries

1698

1631

Grapes

505

373

Yield, t/ha

Grains

1 . 94

2 . 71

2 . 73

1 . 82

2 . 83

Wheat

1 . 81

3 . 0

3 . 04

1 . 46

3 . 16

Sugar beet

17 . 7

18 . 3

18 . 8

20 . 12

23 . 61

Sunseeds

1 . 22

0. 94

1 . 2

1 . 12

0. 89

Potato

12 . 2

10 . 8

10 . 4

11 . 63

13 . 34

Vegetables

11 . 2

12 . 3

12 . 4

13 . 92

14 . 81

Fruits and berries **

5 . 6

5 . 84

Grapes

5 . 9

4 . 52

Data source: Ukrainian State Statistics Committee

* Preliminary data ** In terms of fruit-bearing plants areas

Presently agricultural companies are remaining grains, sunseeds and sugar beet main producers (72-84% total), while population individual companies are berries, fruits, vegetables and potato main producers (76-99% total). It is to be admitted, since lands allocating beginning population individual companies share in grains, sugar beet and sunseeds output has substantially boosted and continues growing.

Stockbreeding

Ukrainian stockbreeding is less successful than plant growing. Due to stockbreeding profitability being considered lower against similar in plant growing, domestic cattle number is constantly shortening. Though this process has slightly slowed down within last years, yet stockbreeding branch in 2003 wasnt as much successful as within previous two years, when significant output growth (+5.6% - 7.0%) was noticed.

Despite of population individual economies certain output growth (+ 0.5%), stockbreeding branch total output has declined 3% (with agrarian companies output decline equaling to 11.5%). It is to be admitted, population individual economies stockbreeding output continues rising for six years already. In western regions practically entire stockbreeding output (90-97%) is assured by population individual economies. As to preliminary estimation, 2004 stockbreeding total gross outcome in all categories economies has remained as of 2003, with cattle/poultry output (in live weight) totaling 2. 387 tons (down 9.2% against 2003), eggs output 11.944 million (up 4.1% against 2003), milk output 13.741t (+ 0.6 against 2003). Population individual economies in 2004 assured 68% meat, ≈ 82% milk and ≈ 54% eggs domestic total output.

Cattle number shortening/domestic poultry number growing tendency presently remains: as of early 2005, cattle number has lowered down 7.2% against 2004 similar (cows 5.2%, pigs 9.3%, sheep/goats 4.3%), while poultry number has grown up 8.2% against 2004 similar (see Table 2).

Table 2. Cattle/poultry output (as of yearend, all categories economies, thousand heads).
2000 2001 2002 2003 2 004*
Cattle 9423.7 9421.1 9108.4 7712.1 7158.2
Pigs 7652.3 8369.5 9203.7 7321.5 6640.0
Sheep/goats 1875.0 1965.0 1984.4 1858.8 1778.8
Horses 701.2 693.4 684.3 637.1 -
Rabbits 5557.1 5912.5 6181.9 5367.0 -
Poultry 123722.0 136811.0 147445.4 142373.8 154001
Bees, thousand bee families 2849.3 2907.8 2810.5 2757.7 -
Data source: Ukrainian State Statistics Committee * Preliminary data

15.03.2005



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